ارزیابی اثر شبکه جاده‌ها بر کاهش کیفیت زیستگاه‌های حیات‌وحش در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری با استفاده از شاخص Vicinity Impact

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری محیط‌زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه محیط‌زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع‌طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

3 استاد گروه اکولوژی سیمای سرزمین، دانشگاه ETH Zurich، زوریخ، سوئیس.

4 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

5 دانشیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

10.22034/jdmal.2021.243139

چکیده

شبکه جاده­‌ها به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین زیرساخت­‌های حمل و نقل دارای آثار بوم­‌شناختی بر زیستگاه‌­ها و جمعیت­‌های حیات‌وحش هستند. تأثیر همسایگی شبکه جاده­‌ها بر زیستگاه‌­ها به همراه قطعه­ قطعه ­شدن زیستگاه، می­‌تواند به کاهش چشمگیر کیفیت زیستگاه و تنوع‌زیستی منجر شود. توسعه شبکه جاده­‌ای از مهم‌ترین عوامل خطر برای زیستگاه­‌ها و گونه‌­های ارزشمند موجود در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری به شمار می رود و لازم است در راستای برنامه­‌ریزی نظام‌مند حفاظت و کاهش اثرهای منفی، وضعیت زیستگاه­‌ها و خدمات بوم­‌شناختی بررسی شود. در پژوهش حاضر، کیفیت زیستگاه گونه­‌های با ارزش شامل قوچ و میش اصفهان Ovis orientalis Gmelin, (subspecies isphahanica Nasonov)، پلنگ Panthera pardus Pocock, و خرس قهوه‏‌ای Ursus arctos Linnaeus, با استفاده از نرم‌افزار InVEST مدل‌سازی شد. همچنین، تأثیر همسایگی شبکه جاده­‌ای با استفاده از شاخص اثر همسایگی، ارزیابی شد. در راستای ارزیابی کارآیی شبکه فعلی مناطق حفاظت شده در استان و شناسایی مناطق دارای اولویت برای حفاظت، از نرم‌افزار Marxan، استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که به طور میانگین 20% از سطح استان دارای مطلوبیت بسیار زیاد برای گونه‌­های هدف است. ولی، تراکم نسبتاً زیاد شبکه جاده‌­ای موجب شده­ است که حدود 14% از مساحت استان تحت تأثیر قرار گیرد، که لزوم شناسایی مناطق دارای بیشترین ارزش بوم­‌شناختی و حداقل آثار همسایگی را افزایش داد. نتایج نشان داد که مناطق شرق، غرب و جنوب­ غرب استان دارای بیشترین ارزش بوم‌شناختی و حداقل اثر همسایگی است. حدود 28% این مناطق در حال حاضر در داخل شبکه فعلی مناطق حفاظت­ شده قرار دارد، که کارآیی نسبی شبکه را نشان داد. 

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