بررسی فلور بیابان لوت در خراسان جنوبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.

10.22034/jdmal.2021.243147

چکیده

اولین چیزی که در ارتباط با بیابان به ذهن می­رسد، نبود یا کمبود آب و پوشش گیاهی است. اگرچه تعداد گونه­‌های گیاهی در بیابان­‌ها بسیار محدود است، اما طی قرن­ها به بقا خود ادامه داده و سازگاری یافته­‌اند. به دلیل سختی ورود به بیابان لوت در یک صد سال اخیر پژوهش‌های اندکی در مورد گونه‌­های گیاهی انجام شده و به همین دلیل در سال 1396 تا 1397 طی پایش میدانی تمام گونه­‌های گیاهی چند سالۀ بیابان لوت در محدودۀ خراسان جنوبی شناسایی شد. در مجموع، شش گونه متعلق به چهار جنس و سه خانواده شناسایی شدند. جنس Chenopodiaceae با سه گونه،Poaceae  با دو گونه وPolygonaceae  با یک گونه به ترتیب 50%، 33/3 % و 16/66 % فلور منطقه را به خود اختصاص دادند و دو جنس Stipagrostis  و Haloxylon  هر کدام دارای دو گونه بودند. تحلیل پراکنش جغرافیایی نشان داد که گونه­‌های ایران-توران و صحارا- سندی به نسبت مساوی حضور دارند. بیشترین پراکنش شامل: سفید تاغ Haloxylon persicum Bge. ex Boiss. & Buhes ، سیاه تاغ Haloxylon ammodendron Bunge ex Fenzl و سبط  Stipagrostis plumosa Munro exT. Anderson در شمال و شمال­‌شرق و بیشترین پراکنش اسکنبیل Calligonum comosum L'Hér  در غرب لوت مشاهده شد. خشکسالی­‌های 18 ساله اخیر موجب تشدید خشکیدگی گونه­‌های تاغ و اسکنبیل در بسیاری از مناطق لوت شده ­است؛ اما افزایش بارش­‌های سال 1397 لوت باعث امیدواری برای ادامه حیات این درختچه­‌ها و نیز حضور بیشتر گونه­‌های سبط گردید.

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